The Marshall Court ruled that the state of Georgia could not extend its laws over the soveriegn Cherokee Nation. The Supreme Court ruling gave political standing not only to the Cherokee in Georgia but to all Nations of American Indians. The sole dissenter on the ruling was Justice Henry Baldwin, the half-brother of Abraham Baldwin who signed the Constitution for Georgia and was the first president of the State University system.
In 1830 the state of Georgia created Cherokee County, sometimes called Original Cherokee County to distinguish it from the Cherokee County created in 1832 and still in existence today. The county was the political representation of the Cherokee Nation. Four existing Georgia counties where assigned to provide judicial services for the Cherokee, in spite of the fact that the Cherokee already had a healthy judicial system including a Supreme Court since 1823.