I am afraid the Reconstruction of Georgia by the Yankee invaders required more time than the barely two years reported by some. In fact, Georgia was reconstructed three times before the Yankees tired of the game and left the job unfinished. The accompanying Chronology portrays the sequence of events.
I do not consider Reconstruction over until 1952 when the ICC removed the punitive discriminatory freight rates from Georgia commerce. Following the War of Yankee Aggression the railroads, with the connivance of the Benevolent Federal Government, divided the continent into five freight rate territories.
The Official Territory, which consisted of the Yankee states east of the Mississippi, enjoyed the lowest freight rates for manufactured goods and the Southern Territory, which consisted of the Old Confederacy, including Kentucky which was being punished for declaring neutrality, enjoyed the highest freight rates for manufactured goods.
The railroads contended that manufactured goods originating in the South were very expensive to transport but that raw materials destined for Yankee factories were not as difficult to transport. Yankee manufacturers could ship goods from New York to Athens, Georgia cheaper that a
manufacturer in Atlanta could ship the same goods to Athens.
The U.S. Supreme Court held that the rate structure was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act but the government and the ICC ruled that price fixing was allowable as long as it was voluntary.
Georgia led by Ellis Arnall entered the fray alone. We did not have the support of a single southern state much less a non southern state. The other southern states were so used to being raped by the United States that they not only did not protest but kissed the hands of their northern masters as they were being lashed. The other southern states actively opposed equalization of freight rates, Congressman Bulwinkle of, that freedom loving state, North Carolina actually introduced legislation to exempt railroads from antitrust laws.
Georgia carried the day and the rates were equalized in 1952. Check the record to determine when industry began coming south. Georgia remains and always will remain Unreconstructed.
December, 1869 United States Army reoccupies Georgia. General Alfred H. Terry military governor.
January, 1870 Terry's Purge. Negroes returned to legislature and 29 whites
February, 1870 Fifteenth amendment ratified at point of Terry's bayonets.
July 15, 1870 Georgia readmitted to the United States.
October, 1870 Bullock secretly resigns and flees Georgia.
February, 1871 Georgia represented in both houses of congress.
October 30, 1871 Benjamin Conley, President of Senate and acting governor.
November 1, 1871 Democrat controlled legislature takes office.
December 14, 1871 Governor authorized to farm convicts out for not less
than one year or more than two years. The lease to Grant, Alexander and Co.
which had expired on June 28, 1871 is extended until April 1, 1871.
December, 1871 Special election called to replace Bullock.
January 12, 1872 James M. Smith, inaugurated as governor.
Governor Jenkins returns to Georgia with the Seal of State.
1872 United States forces evacuate Georgia. Georgia was the last State
readmitted to the United States.
From the beginning of the first Reconstruction on June 17, 1865, to January 12, 1872, was six years and two hundred and nine days of hostile foreign bayonet rule.
From the removal of Jenkins on January 30, 1868 to the inauguration of Smith on January 12. 1872 was four years lacking eighteen days of hostile foreign bayonet rule.
Georgia did not frame a home rule constitution until 1877 when the danger of hostile occupation by United States forces was past.
This explains, in part, the slow industrialization of the South.
Interesting trivia concerning Rufus Bullock.
Bullock was arrested, returned to Georgia, tried and acquitted.
Bullock reportedly stamped the dust of Georgia from his feet once safely over the state line and vowed never to return.
This created a problem in the 1970's. Some group or other determined to locate all governors graves.
Bullock was buried in New York and a national hubbub occurred when the group demanded Bullock's return to Georgia. The clamor grew so loud that Governor Rockefeller threatened to dig old Rufus up with his own hands and drag him back to Georgia.
A person willing to claim kinship with Rufus was located and a
court ordered Rufus transported to Georgia. The court did spent much time
examining the plaintiffs credentials.