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Cherokee County
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Cherokee County was the name given the Cherokee Nation when the state of Georgia illegally took control of the land.

According to Cherokee and Creek legend, the battle of Taliwa was fought near Long Creek Swamp by a small band of Cherokee under Oconostota. During the battle the elderly Oconostota was badly wounded and his teenage bride Watauga ("Nancy Ward") led the Cherokee in a final attack. The Cherokee routed the Creek and gained control of the land north of the Chattahoochee River until 1838.

The first "Cherokee County" was created on June 1, 1830. Since the government of this area was almost non-existent, Georgia split the powers overseeing the eastern portion of the county between Gwinnett County and Hall County while Carroll County oversaw the west. The already over-burdened courts in those counties could not handle the increase of cases stemming from the extension of Georgia law over the Cherokee Nation.

Legislators went back to the drawing board and created a county with judicial powers on December 26, 1831. The court was established at the Harnage Tavern (site of the present-day Tate House), the first overnight stop west of Blackburn's Tavern along the Old Federal Road. U. S. President James Monroe, along with three bodyguards, spent the night at this tavern on May 19, 1819.

This arraignment, too, was quickly shown to be unwieldy. Lawmakers returned to Milledgeville on December 3, 1832 and broke the original Cherokee County into ten political divisions, Cherokee, Cobb County, Cass County, Union County, Lumpkin County, Gilmer County, Floyd County, Forsyth County, Paulding County, and Murray County. Within a year Murray County was divided in half, the western half becoming Walker County.

With the reallocation of land to other political entities a new county seat was established, absorbing the existing village of Etowah, near Bell's Ferry. Renamed Canton for the Chinese city (now Guangzhou, China) that was the center of the silk trade at the time, Cherokee's Canton was the to be the final attempt at raising silk in Georgia. Trees were planted, however, no silk was ever produced.

Although Cherokee County was originally organized in 1830, by that time gold mines were attracting settlers from the east. Sixes Mine, on the site of present-day Sixes Mill, was one of the first in the area. The gold from this mine was noted as some of the purest in the state. In fact, according to White's 1849 statistical abstract it was second only to the gold found in Carroll County. Other mining operations were in production along the Etowah River (Franklin Gold Mine) and the Little River.

In the 1830's mining was a major source of revenue, with iron, iron sulphate, copper sulfate pentahydrate, titanium, quartz, granite and marble being taken from the earth within the county. Although mining continues to modern day, operations in Cherokee County are now minimal.

With the signing of the Treaty of New Echota on December 26, 1835 by a small faction of the Cherokee Nation, and its approval by the Senate of the United States on May 18, 1836 by a single vote, the Cherokee were duped into giving up their land and moving west. In May 1838 members of the Georgia Guard and the U. S. Army began rounding up Cherokee Indians and moving them to Fort Bluffington, near the Etowah River east of Canton.

County: Cherokee County
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